Glossary of Terms

ALLOY

 

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals.

AMETHYST

 

Amethyst is a transparent, semi precious gemstone with a purple hue. Since it is found readily in nature, it is used commonly for jewelry. The color ranges from blue to violet and may include undertones of red, gray or mauve. The deeper the hue, the more valuable the stone is. Amethysts are a crystalline type of quartz.

AMMOLITE

 

Ammolite is mined in Canada and is one of nature's oldest and rarest gems. It is formed from the mineralized remains of an upper Cretaceous fossil called the Ammonite Placenticeras. No two gems will exhibit the same luminous pattern and play of color. Ammolite was granted official gemstone status in 1981 by the International Commission of Coloured Gemstones (CIBJO).

ANALOG DISPLAY

 

A watch that shows the time using hour, minute and second hands.

ANALOG-DIGITAL DISPLAY

 

A watch that shows the time by means of hour and minute hands (analog display) as well as by numbers (digital display).

APERTURE

 

Small opening or window on the dials of some watches which may indicate date, day, hour, moon phase, etc.

AQUAMARINE

 

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family of gemstones. It is a transparent stone that is typically seen in vibranthues of blue and blue-green. The most valuable is the desired deep blue "aqua" colored gemstone. This bright and sparkling gemstone is often found with exceptional clarity, even in large carat sizes. The best aquamarines come from Brazil.

AUTOMATIC

 

A mechanical watch, typically with a balance wheel escapement, whose mainspring is wound by the motion of the wearer's arm, instead of having to be wound manually every day. Whereas a quartz watch is powered by electricity, a mechanical watch is powered by a mainspring which must be rewound for the watch to keep time.

BAGUETTE

 

A baguette is a rectangular shape into which gemstones and diamonds are commonly cut. Baguettes are often used as side stones in ring mountings.

BAIL

 

A bail is the attachment at the top of a pendant, enabling the pendant to hang from a chain.

BALANCE

 

Moving part of a watch, usually circular, oscillating about its axis of rotation. The vibrations of the balance, governed by its spring, perform the actual timekeeping indicated by the hands on the dial.

BARREL

 

Hollow, short cylindrical box in which the mainspring of the watch is housed. Teeth on the outside of the barrel turn the center pinion.

BERYL

 

Beryl is a family of gemstones that includes: green beryl, aquamarine, emerald, heliodor (pink), morganite (yellow), and red. Internal flaws in beryl gems are common but may be hidden or disguised with an oiling process that increases the quality of the gemstone. Beryl gems are considered a tenacious stone with a hardness value between 7 and 8 on the Mohs Scale.

BEZEL

 

Bezel is a type of setting where the gemstone is set evenly into a piece of jewelry, completely surrounded by ametal perimeter. Also refers to the perimeter of a watch face.

BEZEL

 

The ring surrounding the watch dial (or face). The bezel is usually made of gold, gold plate or stainless steel.

BI-DIRECTIONAL ROTATING BEZEL

 

A bezel that can be rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise. These are used for mathematical calculations such as average speed or distance or for keeping track of elapsed time.

BLACK TITANIUM

 

Titanium is a light, strong, lustrous metal. Pure titanium is as strong as steel and can withstand a lifetime of punishment. These factors, along with its lightweight durability and hypo-allergenic nature have made titanium an increasingly popular choice for jewelry, either on its own or as the setting for diamonds and other precious gemstones.

BLEMISH

 

A blemish is a flaw on the external portion of a gemstone. Typically, blemishes are superficial nicks or scratches.

BLUE DIAMOND

 

A natural diamond that is treated by the irradiation process to enhance the color to blue. Although millions of years old, diamonds are the hardest substance known to mankind, and are made from highly compressed carbon molecules.

BOX CLASP

 

A box clasp has a hollow housing with a groove in which a spring tongue clicks into place to secure the clasp shut.

BRILLIANCE

 

Brilliance is the amount of sparkle a gemstone emits through reflection and refraction of white light.

BRILLIANT CUT

 

Brilliant cut gemstones are known to have the most vibrancy and sparkle. With many facets radiating from the center out to the girdle, a brilliant cut maximizes the amount of light that is reflected from the core of the gemstone. Round brilliant diamonds are the most common brilliant cut; variations include oval, marquise, pear shape and heart shape.

BRUSHED FINISH

 

Brushed finish, also known as "satin" finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

CABOCHON

 

Cabochon is a style of cutting a gemstone without facets, creating a smooth, domed surface.

CALIBER

 

Originally denoted the size and factory number of a given watch movement. The term now describes the type of movement, such as men’s caliber, automatic caliber, etc. When accompanied by a manufacturer’s mark, the caliber can serve as an indication of origin.

CARAT

 

Carat is the measurement of weight used for diamonds and gemstones. One carat weighs 200 milligrams. Carat weight is also referred to in points, where one point equals one, one hundredth (.01) of a carat. Therefore a 100-point diamond is one carat. "Ct." is the universal abbreviation for carat. Carat weight is one of the Four C's.

CARBON SPOTS

 

Since diamonds are made up of highly compressed carbon, black carbon clusters can often be found. These spots are also called inclusions. The amount or severity of inclusions determines the clarity of a diamond, when rating it for quality purposes.

CARIBBEAN TOPAZ

 

Caribbean Topaz is a gemstone that is treated and heated to create different colors that are reminiscent of the Caribbean. Although a very hard gemstone, topaz may be susceptible to breaking. Topaz is sought after for several reasons: it is lustrous, has double refraction, and a strong hue

CASE

 

The protective box covering the movement, or mechanism, of a watch.

CASEBACK

 

The reverse side of a watch case that lies against the skin.

CERTIFICATION

 

A grading report that is given to a diamond (and sometimes a precious gemstone) by a reputable and recognized gemological laboratory that defines the physical characteristics and quality rating of a gem. Typically a diamond or colored gem is rated for quality using the Four C'sCutColorClarity and Carat Weight.

CHANNEL SET

 

A style of setting used for diamond and gemstone jewelry, channel set gems rest in a metal channel, where each gem sits perfectly adjacent to the next in a line. Channel set gems are typically roundprincess cut or baguetteshaped.

CHRONOGRAPH

 

A watch that measures the time of day with traditional hour and minute hands, and also has a seconds hand that may be started and stopped to record the exact time of an event, then returned to zero.

CHRONOMETER

 

Technically, all watches are chronometers. But for a Swiss-made watch to be called a chronometer, it must meet certain very high standards set by the Swiss Official Chronometer Control (COSC). A Swiss watch labeled a chronometer has a mechanical movement of the highest quality.

CITRINE

 

Citrine is a form of crystalline quartz, which can be found in hues of yellow, orange and even red- brown. Citrine is named after the French word for lemon. Many of the stones sold as citrine are actually heat-treated amethysts. Most citrine comes from Brazil.

CLARITY

 

Clarity, a measure of quality for gemstones, is graded based upon internal flaws or inclusions. Because diamonds are created by nature over millions of years of intense heat and pressure, imperfections or inclusions are often formed in the process. Clarity is one of the Four C's.

CLASP

 

A clasp is a fastening devise used to attach two things together such as the two ends of a bracelet or necklace.

CLEAVAGE

 

Cleavage is the natural way in which a gemstone has the tendency to break along its crystal structure.

CLOUDS

 

A cloud is a form of inclusion. But unlike carbon inclusions, which are black, "clouds" are white milky areas (clusters of tiny crystals) inherent in the diamond.

COLOR

 

Color is one of the Four C's of diamond quality rating. The term color actually refers to the absence of color in a diamond. A diamond acts like a prism letting light pass through, refracting back to the human eye, into a rainbow of color. The color scale demonstrates the subtlety and various grades of a diamond's color from purest white to yellow and brown.

COLORED DIAMONDS

 

Colored or "Fancy" diamonds are those that are not white. Fancy diamonds can be found in a full spectrum ofhues, which include: blue, brown, black, violet, pink, green, yellow and red.

CORUNDUM

 

Corundum manifests itself in two forms of gemstone - Rubies and Sapphires. Part of the same family, the color of these gems depends on the metallic oxides present in their composition. With a hardness of 9, it is one of the hardest minerals, second to diamonds.

COUNTDOWN TIMER

 

A function that lets the wearer keep track of how much a pre-set period of time has elapsed. Some countdown timers sound a warning signal a few seconds before the time runs out.

CROWN

 

The button on the outside of the watch case that is used to set the time and date. In a mechanical watch, the crown also winds the mainspring.

CROWN

 

The crown is the upper part of a cut diamond or gemstone, the top portion above the girdle.

CRYSTAL

 

The transparent cover on a watch face, typically made of glass, synthetic sapphire or plastic.

CUBIC ZIRCONIA

 

Cubic Zirconia are man made gems which mimic diamonds, yet do not have the same intrinsic properties such ashardness. Through a process developed in 1977, "CZ's" as they are often called, are mass produced and much less expensive than diamonds.

CULET

 

The culet is the minute facet on the tip of the pavilion of a brilliant cut diamond.

CULTURED ALEXANDRITE

 

A created stone that changes from purple in sunlight to green in indoor incandescent light. Crystals grow over a 10 to 14 month cycle in a controlled lab environment to reproduce the same elements found in natural alexandrite.

CULTURED PEARL

 

Kokichi Mikimoto invented the method of manufacturing pearls in 1893, where pearls are "cultured" or produced through human intervention. Mimicking the organic process of natural pearl creation, a miniscule irritant like a bead, a grain of sand, or a piece of tissue is injected into the opening of an oyster or mollusk. The irritant becomes the nucleus of a pearl once that mollusk secretes nacre (a lustrous substance) to cover the irritation. An oyster or mollusk takes between five to seven years to secrete enough nacre to produce a pearl.

CUSHION CUT

 

A cushion cut is a gemstone that is cut to mimic a square, yet has rounded edges. The cut is usually brilliant to give the highest light refraction.

CUT

 

Cut is one of the Four C's of diamond quality rating. The cut of a diamond represents the proportions and finish. A diamond cut with correct proportions and angles will show the maximum amount of light. Cut also refers to the shape and style of a polished gem. The most common shapes of diamonds are as follows: Round, oval, marquise, pear, heart, emerald, trillion, princess and radiant.

CUT GRADE

 

Cut grade is an estimation of how the diamond is proportioned based on industry standards. Every diamond sold by Diamonds International is graded by a trained graduate gemologist.

 

DEPLOYANT BUCKLE

 

A deployant buckle is a three-folding clasp, which connects the two ends of a watch bracelet and allows enough room for placing the watch on the wrist when fully extended.

DEPTH

 

The depth of a diamond is the height of the gemstone, from culet (bottom) to table (top). The perfect depth when cutting a diamond, will allow the optimum amount of light and fire to reflect from within the diamond.

DEPTH ALARM

 

An alarm on a diver's watch that sounds when the wearer exceeds a pre-set depth. In most watches, the alarm stops sounding when the diver ascends above that depth.

DIAL

 

The plate, or face fixed behind the hands of a watch, marked with divisions, numerals or symbols to indicate time by movement of the hands.

DIAMOND

 

Diamonds are the most precious gemstone. Although millions of years old, diamonds are the hardest substance known to mankind, and are made from highly compressed carbon molecules. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C'sCutColorClarity and Carat Weight.

DIGITAL DISPLAY

 

A watch that shows the time with digits rather than with a dial and hands (analog display).

DIRECT DRIVE

 

a function that allows the second hand to advance in intervals rather than a smooth sweep for more precise timekeeping. The French term for a direct-drive second hand is a trotteuse.

DISPERSION

 

Dispersion, or fire, is the rainbow prism of light that reflects from within a finished diamond or gemstone. The better a diamond or gemstone is cut or faceted, the more spectral colors are emitted from within the gemstone.

DISPLAY

 

Shows the time by means of hands and a dial (analog display) or by means of numerals appearing in one or more windows (digital display).

DIVER

 

A watch that is water resistant to 200 meters. Typically has a one-way rotating bezel and screw-on crown and back. Also has a rubber strap or possibly a metal bracelet.

DIVING WATCH

 

A watch that is water resistant to 200 meters. Typically has a one-way rotating bezel and screw-on crown and back. Also has a rubber strap or possibly a metal bracelet.

DUAL TIMER

 

A watch that measures current local time as well as at least one other time zone.

EMERALD

 

The emerald is a signature green hued gem that ranges in color from deep rich green to a light, pale green. Emeralds are created when the element Chromium combines with various impurities. Although emeralds are one of the most valued precious stones, they are found commonly with flaws called "jardin," the French word for garden. As a remedy to lessen the appearance of common flaws and cloudiness, emeralds may be oiled or dyed.

EMERALD CUT

 

The emerald cut is a rectangular shaped cut with severed corners and stepped facets parallel to the girdle. This cut is used not only for emeralds, but also other precious stones such as diamonds.

ESCAPEMENT

 

Device in a mechanical movement that controls the timing through rotation of the wheels and thus the movement of the hands.

FACE

 

The visible side of the watch where the dial is contained. Most faces are marked with Arabic or Roman numerals to indicate the hours.

FACET

 

Facets are the small angles and cuts of a polished diamond or gemstone. A typical brilliant cut round diamond has 58 facets. These polished, flat surfaces enhance the reflection of light and are the determining factor in the diamond's ability to sparkle.

FANCY CUT

 

A term that refers to any diamond that's cut is not round. Some common fancy shapes are heartmarquise andoval. Some more unusual shaped fancies are half moon and trillion.

FANCY DIAMOND

 

Fancy diamonds (non white diamonds) can be found in a variety of hues including: yellow, blue, green, red, and purple. Made of highly compressed carbon, diamonds are one of the hardest substances in the world (hardness rating of 10) and are very lustrous.

FEATHER

 

A feather is an inherent inclusion, or flaw, within a diamond, often only a tiny crack. Depending on the depth or placement of the feather, these "fissures" as they are often called, can make a gemstone more fragile and susceptible to further cracking or, may have no affect on the strength or beauty of the diamond whatsoever.

FINISH

 

The finish of a diamond refers to the polish on the external portion of a diamond. When a diamond or gemstone is well cut and polished, it is said to have a beautiful finish. Finish is also used to describe the polish or texture applied to the metal on an item of jewelry. Common finishes include high polishmattebrushed, or Florentine.

FIRE

 

Fire is the rainbow prism of light that reflects from within a finished diamond or gemstone and is technically known as dispersion. The better a diamond or gemstone is cut or faceted, the more fire is emitted from within the gemstone.

FIRE OPAL

 

The word opal is derived from the ancient Sanskrit upala, which means precious stone. Mexican Fire Opals are mined in Jalisco, Mexico and have a fiery red appearance. A favorite gem of the Japanese, they bestow on it great importance for its mystical meaning.

FISSURE

 

A fissure is an elongated fracture or crack in the surface of a diamond.

FLORENTINE FINISH

 

A Florentine finish is a cross-hatched pattern, tooled into the surface of metal. The lines are often coarser and more deeply incised than that on a brushed finish.

FLUORESCENCE

 

Fluorescence is the light that is emitted from a diamond when subjected to ultraviolet rays. This fluorescent glow is not considered when grading a diamond for quality (using the Four C's); it is simply an inherent characteristic of a diamond (or gemstone).

FLYBACK HAND

 

A seconds hand on the chronograph that can be used to time laps or to determine finishing times for several competitors in race.

FOLD-OVER BUCKLE

 

A fold-over buckle is a two-folding clasp, which connects the two ends of a watch bracelet and allows enough room for placing the watch on the wrist when fully extended.

FOUR CS

 

Typically a diamond or colored gem is rated for quality using the Four C's: CutColorClarity and Carat Weight.

FRACTURE

 

A fracture is a crack or feather in a diamond or gemstone in the opposite direction of its naturally occurring crystals.

FRENCH BACK

 

A French back is an earring back for non-pierced ears where the earring is tightened against the earlobe by means of a screw.

GARNET

 

The mineral, garnet, is part of a group of semi precious stones, which range in color from red to green. Occurring in all colors but blue, they have a hardness that varies between 6-8 on the Mohs Scale. Several types of garnets are: Almandine, Andradite, Grossular, Pyrope, Spessartine, and Uvarovite.

GEAR TRAIN

 

The system of gears which transmits power from the mainspring to the escapement.

GEMSTONE

 

A gemstone is a precious stone or mineral that is valuable and rare, and sought after for its beauty. Well-known examples of gemstones are diamonds and rubies. Several organic materials like coral and pearls are also considered gemstones.

GIRDLE

 

The girdle is defined as the widest perimeter of a gemstone when viewed from the side and top. It lies between the top half (crown) and the bottom half (pavilion) of the diamond or gemstone.

GOLD

 

Gold is a precious metal that has been a symbol of wealth since the beginning of time. In its most expensive, purest form of 24 karats, gold is quite soft and malleable. To gain strength and tenacity, gold is commonly combined with other metals, usually with silver and copper in a process called alloying. Although this may decrease the value of the gold slightly, it increases durability and allows gold to be used for long lasting fine jewelry.

GRAM WEIGHT

 

Gram weight represents the amount of metal used in a piece of jewelry.

HARDNESS

 

Hardness is a stone's ability to resist scratching, surface inclusions, abrasions or cracking (see Moh's Scale).

HEART CUT

 

A diamond or gemstone cut in the shape of a heart.

HIGH POLISH

 

High polish refers to the mirror-like surface of jewelry metal.

HUE

 

Hue is the term used for the actual color of the spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo or violet). The more pure a gemstone's hue, the more valuable. Because gemstones are comprised of many naturally occurring elements, they typically emit one primary color and one or more underlying colors.

INCLUSION

 

An inclusion refers to a naturally occurring flaw, (featherfracturefissure or cloud) within a diamond or gemstone. Since diamonds are millions of years old, inclusions are often common. These imperfections determine the clarity of a diamond or gemstone.

INVISIBLE SETTING

 

Invisible setting is a style in which rows of square princess cut diamonds or gemstones rest perfectly flush against one another within a metal border, with no metal separating them.

JEWEL

 

Generally, synthetic sapphires or rubies that act as bearings for gears in the watch, reducing friction. Sometimes, precious or semi-precious stones are used in high-end watches.

JUMP RING

 

A jump ring is an oval or round ring of metal wire used as an attachment loop on charms, as a pendant bail, or as an end ring on a chain.

KARAT

 

Karat (abbreviated Kt.) is the measurement of gold used to note the purity and fineness of the metal.

KARAT PLATINUM

 

Karat Platinum provides all the benefits of pure platinum (950 Platinum) at roughly half the cost. It is a blended alloy which has a minimum of 58.5% platinum similar to 14K gold which has a minimum of 58.5% gold.

KINETIC

 

These watches run entirely on self-generated energy from the natural movement of your wrist. They never need a battery.

KUNZITE

 

Discovered in California, it was first brought to the market by George Kunz in 1902. The appeal of this gemstone lies in its clarity and its fine delicate pink nuances which often display a hint of violet. Today, the gemstone is mainly found in Madagascar, Brazil and the USA.

 

LAP TIMER

 

A chronograph function that lets the wearer time segments of a race. At the end of a lap, the wearer stops the timer, which then returns to zero to begin timing the next lap.

LARIMAR

 

Larimar is a gorgeous sea-blue gemstone that can only be found in a single square kilometer of the Dominican Republic. Discovered in 1974 off the coast of Barahona, this stunning volcanic rock was found by Miguel Mendez, who named the stone as a combination of his daughter Larrissa's name and the Spanish word for "sea" (mar).

LENGTH

 

Length is the linear measurement of a bracelet or necklace. An average ladies' bracelet is 7" in length and an average men's bracelet is 8" in length. The length of a necklace averages 16-24" in length.

Pearl Necklace Lengths:

  • Collar: A strand of pearls 12-13" in length.
  • Choker: A strand of pearls 14-16" in length.
  • Princess: A strand of pearls 17-19" in length.
  • Matinee: A strand of pearls 20-24" in length.
  • Opera: A strand of pearls 28-34" in length.
  • Rope: A strand of pearls 45" or longer.

     

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)

 

A digital watch display that shows the time electronically by means of liquid held in a thin layer between two transparent plates. All LCD watches have quartz movements.

LOBSTER CLAW CLASP

 

A lobster claw clasp is a jewelry catch that is shaped like the claw of a lobster with a spring-loaded arm that keeps the clasp closed.

LUGS

 

The extensions on a watch case to which the band or bracelet is secured.

LUSTRE

 

Lustre is the degree to which a diamond or gemstone reflects light.

MAIN PLATE

 

Base plate on which all the other parts of a watch movement is mounted.

MAINSPRING

 

The driving spring of a watch or clock, contained in the barrel.

MANUAL WATCH

 

A hand-wound mechanical watch.

MARQUISE CUT

 

A Marquise cut gemstone is brilliant cut, forming an elongated oval with pointed ends.

MATTE FINISH

 

Matte finish, also known as a brushed or satin finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

MECHANICAL WATCH

 

Watch in which the movement is powered by a mainspring, working in conjunction with a balance wheel. Most mechanical watches are wound by hand, except for automatic mechanical watches, which are wound every time you move your wrist.

METAL

 

A solid mineral element, such as bronze or copper, that is able to conduct heat and electricity, is pliable under heat or pressure. Platinum,gold, and silver are considered precious metals.

MOHS SCALE

 

The Moh's scale was devised in 1812 by Austrian mineralogist, Friedrich Moh to measure a mineral's hardness and it's resistance to scratching. The scale goes from talc as number 1, being the softest, to diamonds as number 10, being the hardest substance known.

MOUNTING

 

Mounting refers to an item of jewelry in which one or more stones are set.

MOVEMENT

 

The assembly of a watch or clock, including the winding and setting mechanism, the mainspring, the train, the escapement and the regulating elements.

OILING

 

Oiling, a process of applying mineral oil to a stone, is used to mask inclusions or enhance the color of a gemstone.Emeralds, although very valuable are typically infused with inclusions. Emeralds are often oiled to improve quality.

OMEGA BACK

 

An omega back is a hinged closure resembling the Latin letter, Omega, used to secure a post earring to the ear.

ONYX

 

Onyx, a semi precious stone that is black or white in color lends itself to flat jewelry creation such as cameos, since it has a layered structure. Onyx belongs to the chalcedony family of minerals, which are somewhat porous gemstones. Its hardness is between 6.5- 7 on the Mohs Scale.

OPAL

 

Opals, known for their iridescent and luminous qualities, are well adored. Opals contain a large amount of water and need to be cared for properly since experts warn of cracking. This semi precious stone contains a mixture of colors that produce a fire-like quality, which are actually inclusions that refract hues in a rainbow of colors.

OPTICAL PROPERTIES

 

An optical property is a gem's intrinsic ability to interact with light. Some optical properties are colordispersionand fluorescence.

OVAL CUT

 

Oval Cut is an elliptical shaped diamond or gemstone that is slightly oblong.

PAVE

 

Pave' is a setting style where tiny diamonds or gemstones are faceted and set so close together that they appear "Paved". When set well, pave' gemstones form a cluster or mass that covers the metal in which is set.

PAVILION

 

The pavilion is the bottom or base portion of a diamond or gemstone; the lower part below the girdle.

PEAR CUT

 

A pear cut diamond or gemstone is shaped like a teardrop, rounded on one end and pointed on the other.

PEARL

 

Pearls are organic gems grown within oysters and several other mollusks, which are most valued and sought after when perfectly round and very lustrous. Pearls form as a result of an irritant, which makes its way into the oyster or mollusk shell. The living oyster or mollusk's natural reaction is to secrete nacre, the luminous substance that forms around the irritant. This process takes between five to eight years, the entire life of an oyster or mollusk. With the marvels of modern science, the process has been reproduced using human intervention to create cultured pearls.

Additional Types of Pearls:

  • Natural Pearls -- Pearls made with no human intervention.
  • Cultured Pearls -- Pearls made by inserting a bit of an irritant into a living oyster or mollusk.
  • Baroque Pearls -- Large oddly shaped pearls, usually used as art pieces.
  • Blister Pearls -- A pearl that grows attached to the oyster shell on its side.
  • Biwa Pearls -- A pearl that comes from a specific region in Lake Biwa, Japan.
  • Freshwater Pearls -- A very small variation of pearl.
  • Tahitian Pearls (Black pearls) -- Pearls that are gray to black with green, blue or rose overtones.

 

PENNY WEIGHT

 

A penny weight is a unit of measurement used for precious metals equaling 1/20th of an ounce.

PERIDOT

 

Peridot is a green gemstone with hues that vary from light pea green to a deeper olive green. Because of the green hue of the gem, it is sometimes mistaken as emerald or chrysoberyl. Made of a mineral called olivine, this semi-precious gemstone has an oily luster and a unique refraction quality; when viewing the stone, the human eye sees a double reflection.

PERPETUAL CALENDAR

 

A calendar that automatically adjusts for the months' varying lengths and for leap year.

PLATINUM

 

Platinum is one of the most rare and pure precious metals. Used for jewelry, platinum is usually 90-95% pure. It rarely causes allergic reactions and resists tarnishing. Platinum is considerably denser than gold or silver and is extremely strong and durable.

POINT

 

A point is a measurement of weight for diamonds and gemstones. One point equals one-hundredth of a carat.

POWER RESERVE

 

How long a watch will run with a fully charged power supply. For mechanical watches, the power reserve is usually 44 hours. For quartz watches, it can vary from 18 moths to 10 years.

POWER RESERVE INDICATOR

 

A feature that shows when the watch will soon need a new battery or winding.

PRECIOUS GEMSTONE

 

A precious gemstone is a stone or mineral that is valuable and very rare, and sought after for its beauty. Precious gemstones are diamondssapphiresemeralds and rubies.

PRINCESS CUT

 

A square cut, faceted diamond or gemstone. It is a relatively new fancy cut.

PRONG SET

 

setting used for diamonds and gemstones whereby a group of claws or prongs hold a gemstone in its mounting.

RADIANT CUT

 

Radiant cut gemstones have a total of 70 facets, combining the shape of an emerald cut gem and the sparkle of abrilliant cut square or rectangular gem.

REPEATER

 

A device that chimes the time when the wearer pushes a button.

ROTOR

 

The part of an automatic watch that winds the movement's main spring.

ROUND BRILLIANT CUT

 

Round brilliant cut gemstones are known to have the most vibrancy and sparkle. With 57 or 58 facets radiating from the center out to the girdle, a brilliant cut maximizes the amount of light that is reflected from the core of the gemstone.

RUBY

 

One of the most valuable and costly precious gemstones, rubies boast various shades of red ranging from pink to rich red. The most desirable shade is the deep red- violet color called "Pigeon's-Blood". Rubies are extremely hard; with only diamonds being harder. Carat per carat, rubies are more expensive than diamonds and may contain small irregular inclusions. This gemstone is a member of the corundum family (as are sapphires) containing chromic oxide, which is thought to give them the varying red color.

SAFETY CATCH

 

A safety catch is a secondary closure, used in case the main clasp opens. It is usually a hinged loop that is attached to one side of the clasp and snaps closed onto the other side.

SAPPHIRE

 

Sapphire is a precious gem with a blue hue that varies from a light cornflower blue to deep, ocean blue. The blue color associated with sapphires can be enhanced through heating. Non-blue sapphires are called "Fancy Sapphires" which come in a range of colors including: pink, purple, brown, black, yellow and green. Sapphires are a form of corundum (as are rubies), a family of minerals that are very hard and have high lustre.

SATIN FINISH

 

Satin finish, also known as a brushed or matte finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

SATURATION

 

Saturation is the intensity of brightness or dullness of the color. The more color saturated a gemstone is, the more valuable it becomes.

SCREW BACK

 

A screw back is an ear nut that screws onto a threaded earring post; usually used with diamond stud earrings.

SCREW-LOCK CROWN

 

A crown that can be screwed into the case to make the watch watertight.

SEMI-MOUNT

 

A semi-mount is a finished item of jewelry except for the center stone setting, to which a stone is added separately.

SEMI-PRECIOUS GEMSTONES

 

A gemstone that is less rare and less expensive than a precious gemstone but valued for its beauty. Examples are peridot, amethyst and citrine.

SETTING

 

Setting refers to the style in which a gemstone is held by precious metal into a mounting. Common settings include bezelpave'channel or prong. Setting also refers to the part of jewelry in which one or more stones are set.

SHANK

 

The shank is the round body of the ring that encircles the finger, not including the setting.

SHOCK ABSORBER

 

Spring devices in balance-wheel bearings that divert shocks away from the fragile pivot to the sturdier parts of the balance staff. The springs allow the balance-wheel to return to its original position after shocks.

SHOCK RESISTANT

 

Refers to a watch in which the balance jewels are mounted so they have a slight spring-controlled movement under impact of pivots when the watch suffers a blow or falls; this design helps prevent damage to the jewels and pivots.

SILVER

 

Fine silver is a white precious metal that is 999/1000 pure in its natural form and too soft for practical use. Sterling silver is a shiny mixture of 92.5 % pure silver (925 parts) with 7.5 % metal alloy used for jewelry.

SKELETON CASE

 

A transparent front or back that permits viewing into the inner workings of the watch.

SOLAR POWERED

 

A watch that uses solar energy (from any light source) to power the quartz movement.

SOLITAIRE

 

A solitaire is a single stone ring or pendant.

SPARKLE

 

The sparkle of a diamond or gemstone is the result of the facets that are cut to reflect light. Sparkle is also referred to as brilliance.

SPRING RING

 

A spring ring is a round, tubular metal fastening ring with a spring gap. A spring-loaded arm keeps the claspclosed.

STEPPING MOTOR

 

The part of a quartz movement that moves the gear train, which in turn moves the watch’s hands.

STOPWATCH

 

Watch used for measuring intervals of time.

STRAP

 

A watch band made of leather, plastic or fabric, usually attached to the wrist by a buckle.

SUB-DIAL

 

A small dial on a watch face used for such purposes as keeping track of elapsed minutes or hours or indicating the date.

SWEEP SECONDS HAND

 

A seconds hand that is mounted in the center of the watch dial.

SYMMETRY

 

The symmetry of a diamond or gemstone is the uniform degree to which a gemstone is cut.

SYNTHETIC GEMSTONE

 

Synthetic gemstones are man made gems, produced in a laboratory, which imitate the characteristics of naturally occurring gems. Often difficult to distinguish from natural gemstones, synthetic gems are typically created with little or no imperfections.

TABLE

 

The table is the flat facet on the top of a gemstone, located in the center of the crown.

TABLE PERCENTAGE

 

The Table Percentage of a diamond represents the size of the table in proportion to the width of the girdle, obtained by dividing the table width by the girdle width.

TACHOMETER

 

A device on a chronograph watch that measure the speed at which the wearer has traveled over a measured distance.

TANZANITE

 

This precious gemstone is named after its country of origin, Tanzania, Africa, which is the only known source in which this gem can be found. Tanzanite, a transparent and "mystical" gem is known for its varying shades of violet, from deep rich purple to pastel lilac. The gem can be heated to achieve the most sought after hue -- the vibrant blue violet. Typically unflawed, good quality tanzanite is cut to be faceted, and those which have imperfections can be made into cabochons (domed), carving away inherent flaws.

TITANIUM

 

Titanium is a light, strong, lustrous metal. Pure titanium is as strong as steel and can withstand a lifetime of punishment. These factors, along with its lightweight durability and hypo-allergenic nature have made titanium an increasingly popular choice for jewelry, either on its own or as the setting for diamonds and other precious gemstones.

TITANIUM AND BLACK CABLE

 

Pure titanium is as strong as steel and can withstand a lifetime of punishment. Our titanium cable is crafted with a "memory metal" used extensively throughout the medical industry due to its perfect bio-compatibility. In addition to its rich stylish look, this material provides extreme durability and a remarkable ability to retain its intended profile.

TITANIUM AND GOLD

 

Titanium is a light, strong, lustrous metal. Our mixed metal collection features titanium that has been rolled with gold and then hand set into calibrated grooves or recesses.

TONE

 

Tone represents how light or dark a stone appears by how much brown, black, gray or white is present.

TOPAZ

 

Topaz is a gemstone occurs naturally in many colors, including blue, green, yellow, pink, brown and colorless; it is often treated and heated to make it a rich "Tiffany" blue color. The most valuable type of topaz is Imperial topaz with a golden yellow to orange color. Although a very hard gemstone, topaz may be susceptible to breaking. Topaz is sought after for several reasons: it is lustrous, has double refraction, and a strong hue.

TOTAL DEPTH PERCENTAGE

 

The Total Depth Percentage is the depth of a diamond, from the table to the culet, divided by the average diameter or width of the girdle. The depth of most diamonds is between 53 and 63 percent.

TOURBILLON

 

Design of watch movement in which the balance and escapement are mounted in a framework that is turned continually as the watch runs; this averages and corrects the vertical position errors by varying the conditions that produce them.

TOURMALINE

 

Tourmaline can be found in more colors than any other gemstone: "Colorless," watermelon tourmaline, (both pink and green), rubellite (pink), indicolite (purple), anchorite (black), red, and green- blue. Although this gem occurs readily in many colors, heat can also be applied to tourmalines to lighten or enhance the existing color of the gem. More rarely, the "cat-eye" shape is formed in tourmalines by naturally occurring inclusions that create an optical formation.

TRILLION CUT

 

Trillion cut is a triangular shaped diamond with truncated corners and 44 varying facets.

TUNGSTEN

 

Tungsten Carbide is the world's hardest metallic substance, nearly ten times harder than 18k gold, making it the hardest metal used in commercial jewelry. Tungsten carbide jewelry is unique in that it is scratch & tarnish resistant and has a polished luster that lasts for a lifetime.

TURQUOISE

 

Turquoise is a semi-precious gemstone that is known for its true robin's egg blue with a pure hue. Although turquoise is very opaque, it is also porous, since it is predominantly found in desert regions worldwide. Originally discovered in Turkey, the green hued turquoise can be found in North American. This unique gemstone is usually cut into cabochons (domed) to enhance the natural beauty.

VIBRATION

 

One of the phases of periodic motion; a beat of a pendulum or of a watch balance.

WATCH BRACELET

 

A type of watch band made of elements that resemble links.

WATCH MATERIAL

 

Loose parts or components used to produce or repair watches. Also called “spare parts” and “repair material.”

WATER RESISTANT

 

Made to prevent water from entering. A watch bearing the inscription "water-resistant" on its case back can handle light moisture, such as a rainstorm or sink splashes, but should not be worn swimming or diving. If the watch can be submerged in water, it must state at what depth it maintains water resistance.

WIDTH

 

Width is the horizontal measurement of an item of jewelry measured across the widest area.

WINDING

 

Tightening the mainspring of a watch by hand (by means of the crown) or automatically (by rotor, which is caused to swing by movements of the wearer’s arm).